Documentary

Dear Japanese

© Miyuki Okuyama
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South Holland, The Netherlands, May 2015. Traumatized by the war, Masao\’s family was avoiding talking of the war.

“Dear Japanese” is a documentary made with my personal perspective as an expatriate Japanese in the Netherlands, portraying the Japanese-Dutch-Indonesian children born of war. They were fathered by Japanese military personnel and mothered by Dutch-Indonesian women, during the World War II in former Dutch East Indies under Japanese occupation. They grew up as the enemy children and a family secret.

In the portraits, the models look straight into the viewers’ eyes beyond the lens. Their gaze challenges the viewer to see who they really are. The ordinary yet somewhat bleak Dutch landscapes create striking contrast to their Asian features. This is a subjective documentary on compatriots abroad, sharing with the models the complexity of having pride in being Japanese, coupled with feelings of alienation and guilt.

Historical Background

The Netherlands made contact with the Indonesian archipelago in the 16th century. Over three hundred years of contact with the Dutch gave rise to a population of Indo-Europeans—Dutch citizens sharing both European and Asian ancestry. With the introduction of Dai-Toa Kyoeiken (The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere) and under the pretext of freeing Asia from European power, Japan attacked and occupied the Netherlands East Indies in 1942.

For the next three-and-a-half years, Java, Sumatra, Celebes and other islands were ruled by the Japanese military administration, with over 360,000 Japanese stationed in the Indies throughout that period. Not only were the men in military service in Royal Netherlands Indies Army or Royal Navy interned in POW camps, most of Dutch civilian men were also interned in Japanese civilian camps.

With their fathers, brothers and husbands interned during the war, the women and children were left to fend for themselves. Forced to search for a livelihood, many Indo-European women found work in Japanese offices, cafes or restaurants. In many cases, their encounters with the Japanese occupiers led to intimate relationships and births. While some women saw their relationships as consensual and long-term commitments, others reported having entered into such relationships against their will.

The number of Japanese offspring born during the war were estimated to be at least 10,000* or approximately between 30,000 and 40,000** in Indonesia, but there is no concrete number even now.

After the Japanese capitulation, Indonesia declared its independence. However, the Netherlands did not recognise the independence of its former colony. Dutch citizens and Indo-Europeans moved to so-called “Bersiap” camps to avoid attacks by Indonesian revolutionary groups, who were armed with Japanese weapons.

This was the beginning of the four-year decolonisation period followed by large-scale military operations by the Netherlands, namely the Police Actions. Throughout this period, the mothers of children who had been fathered by Japanese men often felt ostracised from their communities. Consequently, many women and their families decided to keep quiet about their experiences and their children’s Japanese parentage.

As a result of the decolonisation, most Dutch and Indo-Europeans chose Dutch nationality and “repatriated” to the Netherlands, where they had never been before. Many mothers of children with Japanese fathers married during this period, in most cases men who had suffered from forced labour as POWs at military sites such as the Thai-Burma Railway, and the coal mines and shipyards in Japan. Maltreatment, undernourishment, and no medical supplies during such internments led to the death of many, with the survivors suffering life-long trauma from such sub-human ordeals. Japanese offspring had to face the trauma of their stepfathers in their childhoods, because their Japanese features would often trigger painful memories. These children were isolated in their families and the community.

Even after resettlement from Indonesia to the Netherlands, the Japanese origins of these children would often remain a family secret. Many children of Japanese descent grew up in communities which harboured hostile sentiments towards Japan, a foreign power that took away their way of living and ended the status of the Netherlands East Indies as their homeland.

Today, more than 70 years after the end of WWII, many children are still searching for their biological fathers in Japan to fill an important missing element of their identities, and many are still suffering the adverse effects of traumatic childhoods. They take pride in their Japanese roots and they yearn for the land of their fathers as they struggle to solve the puzzle of their origins.

Dear Japanese

The only photo of Namiko’s Japanese father.
Gelderland, The Netherlands, May 2015. Long after his mother\’s death, when Fred was 67, his aunt wrote him a letter to tell him that he is a son of a Japanese, Nakano.
Nijmenen, The Netherlands, Feb 2015. Typical Dutch winter landscape. All the Japanese offspring had to face the cold after migrating from Indonesia.
Gelderland, The Netherlands, Oct 2017. Dylan, the second generation Japanese, has become one of the core members of Japanese descendants organization.
North Brabant, The Neterlands, Nov 2017. The second generation Japanese sisters. They are now in search for their Japanese grandfather.
Gelderland, The Netherlands, Mar 2014. When Joyce was an infant, she lived in Japan with her parents for a while. Their life together did not last long.
Arnhem, The Netherlands, Jan 2015.
South Holland, The Netherlands, Jul 2014. Claudine started her search for her Japanese father in the 1970’s. In 2015, she finally had a chance to see her half sister in Tokyo.
Drenthe, The Netherlands, May 2015. When Edward was 57 years old, his wife confronted his mother for the truth of his birth. Then his mother finally confessed that he is a son of Murakami.
Arnhem, The Netherlands, Mar 2014.
Velp, The Netherlands, Mar 2014. Sakura, cherry blossom, at night.

Miyuki Okuyama
the authorMiyuki Okuyama
Miyuki Okuyama (1972, Japan) is a Japanese photographer and photobook artist living in the Netherlands. Based on her unique perspective as an expatriate Japanese, her photographic works often deal with her identity and roots, interacting with the others’ in her new environment. Recent years, she had been documenting Japanese children born of war in former Dutch East Indies. This documentary and photobook project titled “Dear Japanese” has been exhibited internationally and the book dummy won Photobook Review & Prize at Cortona On The Move (Cortona, Italy) in 2016 and is in the collection of MoMA New York Library and other institutes. She has been exhibiting in Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Japan, including Cortona On The Move (2017, Italy), Obscura Photo Festival (2014, Malaysia), Delhi Photo Festival (2013), Reminders Photography Stronghold (Tokyo, 2015), and KADE (2011, the Netherlands).

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